اثر افزایش سربارة آهن و کمپوست لجن فاضلاب شهری به خاک بر کاهش قابلیت دسترسی کادمیوم در گیاه همیشه بهار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه خاک شناسی، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

چکیده

اهداف: اثر متقابل فلزات سنگین با برخی عناصر از قبیل آهن بر قابلیت دسترسی فلزات سنگین در خاک تاثیر دارد‌، لذا این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر کمپوست لجن فاضلاب شهری اراک غنی‌شده با سرباره آهن بر کاهش قابلیت دسترسی کادمیوم در گیاه همیشه بهار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کاربرد مقادیر 0 ، 15 و 30 تن در هکتار کمپوست لجن فاضلاب شهری اراک غنی شده با 0 و 5 درصد وزنی آهن خالص سرباره فولاد مبارکه اصفهان در یک خاک آلوده شده با مقادیر 0، 5، 10 و15 میلی گرم کادمیوم در کیلوگرم خاک بوده است. بعد از گذشت 60 روز از شروع آزمایش، ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک و غلظت کادمیوم ریشه و شاخساره گیاه همیشه بهار اندازه‌گیری شد و مقایسه‌ میانگین ها با آزمون LSD در سطح احتمال 5 درصد صورت پذیرفت.
یافته‌ها: افزایش کاربرد کمپوست لجن فاضلاب شهری اراک از 0 به 15 و 30 تن در هکتار در خاک آلوده به 10 میلیگرم کادمیوم در کیلوگرم خاک به ترتیب باعث کاهش 15و 35 درصدی در مقدار کادمیوم قابل دسترس خاک شد، این در حالی است که مقدار آهن قابل دسترس خاک به ترتیب 6/5 و 4/8 برابر افزایش یافت. مشابه این نتیجه، غلظت کادمیوم ریشه و شاخساره نیز به ترتیب 24 و 18 درصد کاهش یافت.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که کاربرد کمپوست لجن فاضلاب شهری اراک غنی شده با %5 آهن خالص احتمالاً توانسته است با تاثیر بر ویژگیهای فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک باعث افزایش قابلیت دسترسی آهن در خاک و گیاه و به دنبال آن کاهش قابلیت جذب کادمیوم شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of iron slag and municipal sewage sludge compost addition to soil on decreasing cadmium availability in pot marigold

نویسنده [English]

  • Amirhossein Baghaie
Department of Soil-Science, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background: Interaction effect of heavy metal and some metals such as Fe can affect soil heavy metal availability. Thus, this research was conducted to investigate the effect of Arak municipal sewage sludge compost with iron slag on decreasing cadmium uptake by pot marigold.
Materials and methods:: Treatments were consist of applying enriched Arak municipal sewage sludge compost (0, 15 and 30 t ha-1) with 0 and 5% pure Fe from iron slag of Mobarakeh Steel Complex in a polluted soil (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg Cd kg-1 soil). After 60 days, soil physic-chemical properties and root and shoot Cd concentration of pot marigold was measured and the least significant difference (LSD) statistical analysis was used to determine the differences between the means (p=0.05).
Results: Increasing the loading rate of Arak municipal sewage sludge compost from 0 to 15 and 30 t ha-1 in a Cd polluted soil (10 mg Cd soil-1) caused a decreasing in Cd availability by 15 and 35 percent, respectively, while the Fe availability increased by 5.6 and 8.4 times, respectively. Similar to this result, root and shoot Cd concentration was decreased by 24 and 18%, respectively.
Conclusion: The result of this study showed that applying sewage sludge compost enriched with 5% Fe pure can probably affect soil physico-chemical properties that increasing soil and plant Fe availability and thereby, decreasing Cd availability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cadmium
  • Iron slag
  • Availability
  • Municipal sewage sludge
  • Compost
[1] Palizban A, Asghari G, Badiee A, Mardani Nafchi H, Kazemi Vardanjani A. Determination of contamination of Lead and Cadmium in Canola and safflower in around of Isfahan Still Company (ESCO) and Compare this pollution with oil extracted from them. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences. 2016;18(5):94-102.[in Persian]
[2] Cheraghi M, Kargar A, Lorestani B, Tabiee O. Determination of cadmium, nickel, lead and vanadium concentrations in white Indian prawn sold in Shiraz town. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences. 2014;16(4):54-61. [in Persian]
[3] Liu Y, Xiao T, Perkins RB, Zhu J, Zhu Z, Xiong Y, et al. Geogenic cadmium pollution and potential health risks, with emphasis on black shale. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2017;176:42-49.
[4] Swartjes FA, Versluijs KW, Otte PF. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas. Environmental Research. 2013;126:223-231.
[5] Sanches Filho PJ, Caldas JS, da Rosa NN, Pereira FOP. Toxicity test and Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn bioccumulation in Phalloceros caudimaculatus. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2017;4(3):206-211.
[6] Kersten G, Majestic B, Quigley M. Phytoremediation of cadmium and lead-polluted watersheds. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2017;137:225-232.
[7] Baghaie A, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Afyuni M, Schulin R. The role of organic and inorganic fractions of cow manure and biosolids on lead sorption. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 2011;57(1):11-18.
[8] Sharifi M, Afyuni M, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH. Effects of sewage sludge, animal manure, compost and cadmium chloride on cadmium accumulation in corn and alfalfa. Journal of Residuals Science and Technology. 2010;7(4):219-225.
[9] Molaei S, Shirani H, Hamidpour M, Shekofteh H, Besalatpour AA. Effect of Vermicompost, Pistachio Kernel and Shrimp Shell on Some Growth Parameters and Availability of Cd, Pb and Zn in Corn in a Polluted Soil. journal of Water and Soil Science. 2016;19(74):113-124. [in Persian]
[10] Karami S, Ronaghi A. Interaction Effects of Cadmium and Wheat or Alfalfa Residues on Corn Yield and Nutrients Uptake. Iranian Journal of Soil Research. 2016;30(1):13-23. [in Persian]
[11] Rezvani M, Zaefarian F, Gholizadeh A. Lead and nutrients uptake by aeluropus littoralis under different levels of lead in soil. Water and Soil Science. 2012;22(3):73-86. [in Persian]
[12] Malekzadeh E, Alikhani H, Savaghebi-Firoozabadi G, Zarei M. Bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil through cultivation of maize inoculated with plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria. Bioremediation Journal. 2012;16(4):204-211.
[13] Tabarteh Farahani N, Baghaie AH. Effect of enriched cow manure with converter sludge on Fe bio-availability in a lead polluted soil. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation. 2017; 24:205-220. [in Persian]
[14] Malakootian M, Khazaei A. Comparison of nano zerovalent iron particles and manganese compounds efficiency in cadmium ion removal from aqueous environments. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 22(2):93-103.
[15] Melali AR, Shariatmadari H. Application of Steel Making Slag and Converter Sludge in Farm Manure Enrichment for Corn Nutrition in Greenhouse Conditions. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 2008;11(42):505-513. [in Persian]
[16] Abbaspour A, Kalbasi M, Shariatmadari H. Effect of steel converter sludge as iron fertilizer and soil amendment in some calcareous soils. Journal of plant nutrition. 2004;27(2):377-394.
[17] Mansouri T, Golchin A, Fereidooni J. The Effects of EDTA and H2SO4 on Phyto-extraction of Pb from contaminated Soils by Radish. J Water Soil 2016;30(1):194-209. [in Persian]
[18] Rezakhani L, Golchin A, Samavat S. Effect of different rates of Cd on growth and chemical composition of spinach. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 2013;7(14):1136-1140.
[19] Motesharezadeh B, SavaghebI G, R. Study of sunflower plant response to cadmium and lead toxicity by usage of PGPR in a calcareous soil. Journal of  Water and Soil. 2011;25:1069-1079. [in Persian]
[20] Lee P-K, Choi B-Y, Kang M-J. Assessment of mobility and bio-availability of heavy metals in dry depositions of Asian dust and implications for environmental risk. Chemosphere. 2015;119:1411-1421.
[21] Saadat K, Barani Motlagh M. Influence of Iranian natural zeolites, clinoptilolite on uptake of lead and cadmium in applied sewage sludge by Maize (Zea mays. L.). Journal of Water and Soil Conservation. 2013;20:123-143. [in Persian]
[22] Westerman  RL. (Ed.). Soil testing and plant analysis. SSSA, No. 3, Madison,Wisconsin, USA, 1990.
[23] Baghaie A. Effect of municipal waste compost and zeolite on reduction of cadmium availability in a loamy soil (A case study: Arak municipal waste compost). Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production. 2018;6(4):103-117.
[24] Cui H, Yi Q, Yang X, Wang X, Wu H, Zhou J. Effects of hydroxyapatite on leaching of cadmium and phosphorus and their availability under simulated acid rain. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2017;5(4):3773-3779.
[25] Baghaie A, Khoshgoftarmanesh A, Afyuni M. Crop effects on lead fractionation in a soil treated with lead organic and inorganic sources. Journal of Residuals Science and  Technology. 2010;7(3):131-138.
[26] Sharma A, Johri B, Sharma A, Glick B. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GRP 3 influences iron acquisition in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilzeck). Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2003;35(7):887-894.
[27] Tafvizi M, Motesharezadeh B. Effects of Lead on Iron, Manganese, and Zinc Concentrations in Different Varieties of Maize (Zea mays). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2014;45(14):1853-1365.
[28] Basta NT, Ryan JA, Chaney RL. Trace element chemistry in residual treated soil: Key concepts and metal bioavailability. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2005;34:49-63.
[29] Matos G, Arruda M. Vermicompost as natural adsorbent for removing metal ions from laboratory effluents. Process Biochemistry. 2003;39(1):81-88.
[30] Carrasquero-Durán A, Flores I. Evaluation of lead (II) immobilization by a vermicompost using adsorption isotherms and IR spectroscopy. Bioresource technology. 2009;100(4):1691-1694.
[31] Kim SU, Owens VN, Kim YG, Lee SM, Park HC, Kim KK, et al. Effect of Phosphate Addition on Cadmium Precipitation and Adsorption in Contaminated Arable Soil with a Low Concentration of Cadmium. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2015;95(5):675-679.
[32] Fouladi  fard R, Azimi A. Comparing the bio-sorption affinity of ni and cd by bio-solid with other bio-sorbent. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2014;16(3):35-49.
[33] Wang G, Su M-Y, Chen Y-H, Lin F-F, Luo D, Gao S-F. Transfer characteristics of cadmium and lead from soil to the edible parts of six vegetable species in southeastern China. Environmental Pollution. 2006;144(1):127-135.