نقش و عملکرد تلومر در تولید مثل

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگاه رویان، پژوهشکده زیست فناوری جهاد دانشگاهی، مرکز تحقیقات پزشکی تولید مثل، گروه زیست فناوری تولید مثل، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد زیست شناسی سلولی و مولکولی، پژوهشگاه رویان، پژوهشکده زیست فناوری جهاد دانشگاهی، مرکز تحقیقات پزشکی تولید مثل، گروه زیست فناوری تولید مثل، اصفهان، ایران

3 کارشناس ژنتیک پژوهشگاه رویان، پژوهشکده زیست فناوری جهاددانشگاهی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم سلولی، گروه زیست فناوری مولکولی، اصفهان، ایران

4 پژوهشگاه رویان، پژوهشکده زیست فناوری جهاددانشگاهی، مرکز تحقیقات پزشکی تولید مثل، گروه زیست فناوری تولید مثل، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

اهداف: تلومر‌ها ساختار‌های حفاظت شده‌ی هتروکروماتینی غیر کد شونده با تکرار‌های شش نوکلئوتیدی غنی از گوانین هستند که در انتهای کروموزوم‌ها قرار دارند. این ساختار‌ در طی تکامل حفظ شده‌اند و عملکرد آن ها به طول ساختار وابسته است. در سلول‌های سوماتیک، طول تلومر‌ در هر بار تقسیم سلولی کاهش می‌یابد. کوتاه شدن بیش از حد طول تلومر باعث توقف در چرخه‌ی سلولی، ناهنجاری در تفکیک شدن کروموزوم‌ها و مرگ سلولی می‌گردد. در حالی که در سلول‌های زایا و سرطانی به علت فعال بودن آنزیم تلومراز، کاهش طول تلومر در آن رخ نمی‌دهد. نشان داده شده که برخی از فاکتورها از جمله،1) سن پدر و مادر در هنگام تولد فرزندشان، 2)جنسیت، 3)سابقه‌ی سرطان در خانواده، 4) سندروم‌ها، 5)مصرف سیگار، 6)اشعه‌ی X ، 7) استرس روانی، 8)مصرف مشروبات الکل، 9) عادت‌های غذایی بر طول تلومر تاثیر دارند. لذا در این مطالعه مروری، در رابطه با نقش طول تلومر در سلول‌های زایا‌ی مردانه بحث می‌گردد.
مواد و روش ها: برای این مقاله مروری ما از اطلاعات و داده‌های مرتبط و حاصل از جستجوی پایگاه‌ داده PubMed و Google Scholar، بین سال‌های 1941 تا 2016، استفاده کردیم.
یافته‌ها: اندازه طبیعی طول تلومر اسپرم می تواند بعنوان یک نشانگری از کیفیت مایع منی ، توانایی لقاح، و در نتیجه جنین با کیفیت خوب و حاملگی در نظر گرفته شود.
نتیجه‌گیری: بررسی ساختار تلومر به خصوص طول تلومر، بینش جدیدی را برای درک ما از علل ناباروری انسان ارائه می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role and function of telomere in reproduction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Tavalaee 1
  • Zahra Dormishoun- nejad 2
  • Tayebeh Izadi 3
  • Mohammad hosein Nasr-esfahani 4
1 Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran
2 MSc Student, Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran
3 B.Sc, Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and aims: Telomeres as noncoding hetrochromatic and protective structures contain hexa-nucleutid repeats with rich in guanine at the end of each chromosomes. These structures are conserved during evolution, and their function depends on their length. In somatic cells, telomeres length decreases by each cell division. Shortening of telomere length lead to cell cycle arrest, chromosomes anomalies and cell death. While, telomere length does not short in germ cells and cancer cell due to high activity of telomerase enzyme. Other factors that influenced the telomere length are: 1) parental age at child's birth, 2) gender, 3) family history of cancer, 4) syndromes, 5) smoking, 6) X-radiation, 7) psychological stress, 8) alcohol consumption and 9) improper eating habits. Therefore, we aimed in this review, to discuss the role of telomere length in male germ cells.
Materials and Methods: For this review, all relevant information were collected via databases including PubMed and Google Scholar during the period 1965-2016.
Results: Normal size of the sperm telomere can be considered as an indicator of semen quality, ability to fertilize and result in formation of good quality embryo and pregnancy.
Conclusion: Examination of telomeric structure especially telomere length could provide a new insight for our understanding of the etiology of human infertility.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Telomeres
  • sperm
  • ovulation
  • fertilization
  • fertility
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