اهمیت سلول‌های بنیادی مزانشیمی در درمان زخم‌های پوستی

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه سلول‌های بنیادی و پزشکی بازساختی، پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی پزشکی، پژوهشگاه ملی مهندسی ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه سلول‌های بنیادی و پزشکی بازساختی، پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی پزشکی، پژوهشگاه ملی مهندسی ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری، تهران، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف  سلول‌های بنیادی مزانشیمی (MSCها) به‌عنوان یک منبع جذاب برای سلول‌درمانی بافت‌های آسیب‌دیده شناخته شده‌اند. توانایی تمایز چندگانه، دستیابی آسان، ایمنی‌زایی پایین و نقش چشمگیر در فیزیولوژی ترمیم زخم باعث استفاده گسترده از این سلول‌ها در ترمیم زخم شده است. در این مطالعه مروری، نقش MSCها در ترمیم زخم‌های پوستی مورد بحث قرار می‌گیرد.
مواد و روش‌ها این مقاله مروری براساس یافته‌های حاصل از جستجوی پایگاه داده‌های PubMed و Google Scholar بین سال‌های 1990 تا 2020 و سایت اینترنتی ClinicalTrials.gov تهیه شد.
یافته‌ها: MSCها در تمام مراحل ترمیم زخم موثرند. این سلول‌ها به جایگاه آسیب پوستی مهاجرت می ‌کنند و علاوه بر تمایز به سلول‌های پوستی، از طریق پیام‌رسانی پاراکرین، پاسخ‌های ایمنی و التهابی را مهار و تکثیر و تمایز سلول‌های پیسشاز ساکن در محل را تحریک می‌کنند و به رگزایی، تشکیل مجدد اپیتلیوم و شکل‌گیری بافت گرانوله منجر می‌شوند. در مرحله بازسازی و بلوغ نیز این سلول‌ها تشکیل بافت فیبروز و انقباض زخم را کاهش و بیان کلاژن و مقاومت کششی زخم را افزایش می‌دهند. این سلول‌ها عملکرد خود را براساس ویژگی‌های مولکولی محل ضایعه تغییر می‌دهند و باعث ایجاد ریزمحیط ترمیم‌کننده زخم به جای ریزمحیط فیبروتیک می‌شوند.  
نتیجه‌گیری: امروزه پیشرفت‌های شگرفی در روش‌های تحویل MSCها به زخم‌های در حال ترمیم حاصل شده است. این سلول‌ها با تزریق داخل وریدی یا داخل درمی، همراه با داربست‌ها، به شکل اسپری پلیمر فیبرین یا همراه با هیدروژل‌ها استفاده می‌شوند. علاوه بر این، وزیکول‌های خارج سلولی و محیط هم‌افزایی شده این سلول‌ها به‌تنهایی نیز مؤثر است. مطالعات آینده می‌تواند به راهکارهای درمانی مؤثرتری در زمینه استفاده از MSCها در ترمیم زخم منتهی شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The importance of mesenchymal stem cells in skin wound healing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Fakhr Taha 1
  • Arash Javeri 2
1 Associate professor, Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Medical Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran .
2 Assistant professor, Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Medical Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as an attractive source for cell therapy of damaged tissues. The multipotential differentiation capability, easy accessibility, low immunogenicity and significant role in wound healing physiology have led to the widespread use of these cells for wound healing. In this review study, the role of mesenchymal stem cells in repair of skin wounds is discussed . Materials and Methods: This review was written based on findings from a search of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases between 1990 and 2020. Results: Mesenchymal stem cells have important roles at all stages of wound healing. These cells migrate to the site of skin damage and not only differentiate into the skin cells but also through paracrine signalling inhibit the immune and inflammatory responses, induce proliferation and differentiation of resident progenitor cells and result in angiogenesis, epithelialization and granule tissue formation. In the regeneration and maturation phase, the MSCs reduce scar formation and wound contraction and increase collagen expression and wound tensile strength. These cells alter their function based on the biomolecular properties of the lesion site, and create a wound-healing rather than fibrotic microenvironment .
Conclusion: Todays, significant advances have been made in the delivery of MSCs into healing wounds. These cells are delivered via intravenous or intradermal injection, or delivered with scaffolds, as a fibrin polymer spray or with hydrogels. In addition, the extracellular vesicles and conditioned medium of MSCs alone are effective. Future studies could lead to more effective strategies for the use of mesenchymal stem cells in wound healing .
Received

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • Paracrine
  • Immunomodulation
  • HEALING
  • Skin wound
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دوره 28، شماره 2
خرداد و تیر 1400
صفحه 259-273
  • تاریخ دریافت: 05 بهمن 1398
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 07 اردیبهشت 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 07 اردیبهشت 1399
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 خرداد 1400