تبیین و تحلیل الگوهای گذران اوقات فراغت در سالمندان:تحلیل محتوای کیفی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات عوامل اجتماعی موثر بر سلامت، دانشگاه علوم توانبخشی و سلامت اجتماعی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه علوم مدیریت و اقتصاد بهداشت دانشکده بهداشت دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران

3 استادیار، گروه مدیریت خدمات بهداشتی درمانی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زابل، ایران

4 گروه مدیریت توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم توانبخشی و سلامت اجتماعی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف: از آنجایی که مشارکت در فعالیتهای فراغتی، سلامت جسمی و روانی سالمندان را بهبود می‌بخشد، در این مطالعه به تبیین و تحلیل الگوهای فراغتی سالمندان جهت آشکارسازی مشکلات، نیازها و موانع فراغتی برای سیاستگذاران پرداخته شده است.

روش بررسی: مطالعه ی حاضر، مطالعه ی کیفی با استفاده از تحلیل محتوای قراردادی بوده که در آن بر اساس نمونه گیری هدفمند، 21 سالمند بالای 60 سال با حداکثر تنوع انتخاب شده و جمع آوری داده ها از طریق مصاحبه ی نیمه ساختار یافته تا اشباع داده ها در سال 1397صورت گرفت. از چهار معیار مقبولیت ، قابلیت اطمینان، قابلیت انتقال و قابلیت تأیید پیشنهادی گوبا و لینکن جهت ارزیابی صحت داده‌ها استفاده شد.

یافته ها: سه مضمون اصلی شکل گرفته از مطالعه عبارت بودند از: فعالیت های اوقات فراغت، موانع مشارکت در فعالیتهای اوقات فراغت و عوامل موثر بر اوقات فراغت. هشت طبقه اصلی "تفریح"، "ورزش"، "تعاملات اجتماعی"، "استراحت"، "فعالیت هنری"، "فعالیت فرهنگی"، "رسانه"، "پرداختن به فرائض دینی"از آنالیز داده‌ها استخراج شد رایج ترین فعالیتهای اوقات فراغت در سالمندان تماشای تلویزیون، پیاده‌روی، رفتن به پارک و رفتن به مساجد بود. همچنین، مهمترین موانع مشارکت در فعالیتهای فراغتی مشکلات اقتصادی، ناتوانی جسمی و عدم دسترسی به تسهیلات فراغتی بود.

نتیجه گیری: با توجه به رایج‌ترین فعالیتهای فراغتی در سالمندان و موانع مشارکت در فعالیتهای فراغتی، میتوان با تدارک برنامه‌های تفریحی، ورزشی، آموزشی و مذهبی از جمله پیاده روی و توجه به غنی سازی برنامه های تلویزیون، از سوی نهادها و سازمانهای مسئول و در دسترس قرار دادن این تدارکات، زمینه ی رفاه و سلامت سالمندان را فراهم نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination and Analysis of Leisure Time Patterns in the Elderly: Qualitative Content Analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Mahboubeh Hosseini Zare 1
  • Abolghasem Pourreza 2
  • Parvaneh Esfahani 3
  • Kianoush Abdi 4
1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences,Tehran , Iran
2 Department of Health Management and Economics School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IRAN
3 Assistant Professor of Health care Services Management, School of Public Health. Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IRAN
4 Associate Professor, Department of rehabilitation management,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract:

Objective: Since participation in leisure activities improves the physical and mental health of the elderly, in this study, the leisure patterns of the elderly are explained and analyzed to reveal the problems, needs and barriers of leisure for policy makers.

Materials & Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by using conventional content analysis. 21 elderly people over 60 years old were selected based on purposive sampling with maximum diversity and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and continued till data saturation was occurred in 2019.

In order to evaluate the accuracy of the data, four criteria of acceptability, reliability, transmission capability and the capability of the proposed approval of Goba and Lincoln were used.

Results: three main themes of the study were included of leisure activities, barriers to participation in leisure activities and factors affecting leisure. The eight main categories of "recreation", "sport", "social interaction", "rest", "artistic activity", "cultural activity", "media" and "religious beliefs" were extracted from the data analysis. The most common leisure activities for the elderly were watching television, hiking, going to parks and mosques. The most important barriers to non-participation in leisure activities were economic problems, disability and lack of access.

Conclusion: Due to the most common leisure activities in the elderly and barriers to non-participation in leisure activities, the provision of recreational, educational and religious programs by responsible institutions and organizations and their availability can provide welfare and health of the elderly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leisure time
  • Aged
  • qualitative study
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دوره 29، شماره 1
فروردین و اردیبهشت 1401
صفحه 88-100
  • تاریخ دریافت: 21 دی 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 17 فروردین 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 17 فروردین 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 24 بهمن 1400