عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background: Rural areas of Qom are encountered with problems such as water scarcity, rationing of water in summer and low quality water. The aim of this study was investigation of water consumption pattern, maximum and minimum daily and hourly factors and unaccounted for water in rural areas of Qom and offering some strategies for optimum management of consumption.
Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive – analytical study. 15 out of 111 rural areas of Qom with certain criteria were selected which were representative of the whole areas. Water consumption pattern was determined in selected rural areas. In order to determine the amount of unaccounted for water and maximum and minimum daily and hourly factors, 3 villages of (Dastgerd, Vrjan and Toghrod) which had safe volumetric flow meters were selected. They were representatives of 15 villages. SPSS 16 software was used for data analysis.
Results: In 15 Rural areas of Qom, average domestically consumption per capita (LPCD), average general uses per capita (LPCD), average industrial and commercial per capita (LPCD) and total consumption per capita (LPCD) were 173, 4.6, 3 and 180.6, respectively. Average minimum and maximum daily factors were equal to 0.72 and 1.23 respectively. Also, average minimum and maximum hourly factors were equal to 0.63 and 2.43, respectively. The average of unaccounted for water per capita was 28.2% (71.6 LPCD).
Conclusion: Average of total consumption per capita (LPCD) and unaccounted for water were high in comparison with the standards of Ministry of Energy. In order to optimize the management of water some strategies are recommended. Strategies such as: training, reduce the water pressure in the network, use of accessories for reducing water consumption, separation of water used in green areas from sanitary uses, identifying, repairing or replacing faulty flow meters, repairing and rehabilitation of water distribution networks and reservoirs and prevention from the creation of illegally connections.