شیوع افسردگی در سالمندان تُرک آذری مقیم منزل در شهرستان سلماس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پزشک، گروه سالمندی، مرکز تحقیقات سالمندی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه سالمندی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات سالمندی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار،‌ گروه پرستاری، دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی استان بوشهر، بوشهر، ایران.

5 دکتر، مرکز تحقیقات مسائل اجتماعی و روانی سالمندان، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران.

6 استادیار، گروه آمار زیستی و اپیدمیولوژی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه، ایران.

چکیده

اهداف باتوجه‌به افزایش جمعیت سالمندان، بیماری‌های مرتبط با این سن ازجمله بیماری‌های روانی نیز درحال‌افزایش است. در جوامع مختلف، به‌ویژه جوامع قومی و اقلیت‌ها، ممکن است شیوع بیماری‌های مختلف ازجمله افسردگی و حتی بعضی عوامل مرتبط‌با آن متفاوت باشد. در این مطالعه مقطعی، وضعیت جمعیت‌شناختی و میزان شیوع افسردگی و برخی از عوامل اجتماعی و سلامت فردی مرتبط‌با سالمندان تُرک آذری مقیم منزل بررسی شد.
مواد و روش ها پژوهش حاضر، پژوهشی توصیفی‌مقطعی بود که روی سیصد سالمند تُرک آذری مقیم منزل و بدون‌اختلال شناخت انجام شد. نمونه‌های این مطالعه به‌صورت خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شدند. در این مطالعه، از پرسشنامه حاوی اطلاعات جمعیت‌شناختی و سوابق سلامتی و پرسشنامه بررسی افسردگی در سالمندان (15-GDS) استفاده و به‌صورت مصاحبه حضوری با سالمند تکمیل شد. اطلاعات به‌دست‌آمده با استفاده از روش‌های آماری آزمون تی و تحلیل واریانس و خی‌دو، در سطح معناداری 05/0P≤ تجزیه‌وتحلیل شد.
یافته ها میانگین سن افراد مطالعه‌شده در مردان 2/70±7 و در زنان 5/69±6 بود. براساس یافته‌های تحقیق، میانگین نمره افسردگی در سالمندان تُرک آذری 53/62±3/4، میزان شیوع افسردگی خفیف 28درصد، افسردگی متوسط 3/10درصد، افسردگی شدید 3/6درصد و 4/55درصد بدون علامت بود. در این تحقیق، بین میانگین افسردگی و جنس، وضعیت اشتغال، سطح تحصیلات، سن، وضعیت تأهل، فعالیت ورزش، بیماری‌های مزمن، سابقه سقوط و مشکلات شنوایی، کلیوی، ادراری، گوارشی و عضلانی‌اسکلتی ارتباط آماری معنادار مشاهده شد (05/0P≤). این در حالی بود که بین میانگین افسردگی و محل سکونت در شهر یا روستا و سطح درآمد ارتباط آماری معنادار وجود نداشت (05/0P≥).
نتیجه گیری شیوع افسردگی شدید و متوسط در سالمندان تُرک آذری برابر یا کمتر از دیگر پژوهش‌ها در ایران بود. باتوجه‌به ارتباط بین افسردگی با شاخص‌های مربوط‌به سلامت و بیماری‌ها، می‌توان ازطریق اجرای برنامه‌های غربالگری که به شناسایی زودرس سالمندان درمعرض خطر بیماری‌های روانی و ارتقای سطح رضایت از زندگی و سلامت و کیفیت زندگی منجر می‌شود، زمینه‌های ارتقای سطح بهداشت روان را در این افراد فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prevalence of Depression in Turk Azeri Older Adults of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kazem Ashrafi 1
  • Robab Sahaf 2
  • Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahbalaghi 3
  • Akram Farhadi 4
  • Gholamreza Ansari 5
  • Farid Najafi 6
  • Azizeh Gharanjik 1
  • SHadi Ghaderi 1
1 G.P., MPH, Department of Ageing, Iranian Research Center on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Iranian Research Center on Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant professor, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
5 PhD., Department of Ageing, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6 Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Objectives The population aging is a pretty new phenomenon and psychological disorder is one of the most important problems associated with the elderly communities. In ethnic societies, there are some barriers in the elderly that could impede the diagnosis of psychological and mood disorders such as depression. The current cross sectional study investigated the demographic characteristics, prevalence of depression, and some social factors and personal health problems of 60 Iranian Azeri Turkish elderly cases who stayed home.
Methods The current cross sectional study was conducted on 300 Iranian Azeri Turkish elderly who participated in the study voluntarily and had no cognition impairment. Samples were selected randomly. The study participants filled out a questionnaire containing demographic information, health status and diseases antecedent; the questionnaire of depression in the elderly (GDS-15) was also completed by interviewing the cases. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 employing t test, Chi-square test, and ANOVA.
Results The mean age of the study cases was 70±7.2 years in males and 69±6.5 years in females. Based on the results of the current study, the mean score of depression in the study cases was 4.62±3.53. The prevalence of minor depression was 28%, moderate depression 10.3%, and major depression 6.3%; also, 55.4% were asymptomatic. There was a significant statistical relationship between depression score and gender (P<0.001), occupational status (P<0.001), educational level (P=0.01), physical activity (P=0.02), chronic diseases (P<0.001), hearing impairments (P=0.007), and problems with kidney and urinary tract (P=0.04), gastrointestinal (P<0.001) and musculoskeletal systems (P<0.001); there was no significant statistical relationship between the mean score of depression and the place of living (urban or rural residence), level of income, and living together (P≥0.05).
Conclusion Depression is one of the most important diseases in aging period. The prevalence of minor and moderate depression among Azeri elderly is lower or similar to those of other studies in Iran. The result indicated a positive and significant relationship between depression and some health status variables. Hence, it is recommended to apply screening programs to identify elderly who are at risk for psychological disorders and also define measures to improve their life satisfaction, health status, and the quality of life.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • depression
  • elderly
  • Azeri Turkish
  • Demographic characteristics
  • Chronic diseases
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دوره 23، شماره 6
بهمن و اسفند 1395
صفحه 856-865
  • تاریخ دریافت: 13 مرداد 1395
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 15 شهریور 1395
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 18 آذر 1395
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 بهمن 1395